The marine environment is a precious asset, since oceans and seas cover 70% of the Earth’s surface and contain 90% of its biosphere. Of all forms of pollution, sea pollution is one of the most dangerous because of its consequences for fundamental biological and ecological balances, the degree of degradation already reached, the diversity of sources of pollution and the difficulty of monitoring compliance with measures adopted. Apart from the accidental spillage of hydrocarbons in the sea, the main sources of sea pollution are land-based ones, i.e. the discharge of effluent from land and discharges of waste at sea. Therefore, the measures taken to control discharges into the aquatic environment, examined above, combat marine pollution.